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Formal Reports

Report of results of completed projects or major milestones either in scientific terms or in terms acceptable to a wider audience. Note: Unless linked to the full text, reports are only available to NATO member nations from designated distribution centres. 

Documents

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Secure deployable communications setup for unattended sensors (Forward Eyes) Secure deployable communications setup for unattended sensors (Forward Eyes)

Date added: 09/01/2006
Date modified: 06/22/2012
Filesize: Unknown

Secure deployable communications setup for unattended sensors (Forward Eyes). NURC-FR-2006-019. September 2006.

The execution of the NURC Scientific Programme of Work has demonstrated the value to operational commands of near real time environmental data in support of amphibious landings. The Forward Eyes covert system, composed of a meteo station, a wave-current meter and a surveillance camera, has been developed on the basis of that experience and tested during the Loyal Midas 05 Military Exercise. This report discusses the communications architecture developed by NURC for the Forward Eyes camera system, and provides all configuration data necessary to replicate it using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) devices. The IPSEC Virtual Private Network (VPN) concept presented in this document is applicable to mobile terminals and sensors that not only are connecting with dynamic (e.g. variable over time) IP addressing, but that are also “hidden” behind a gateway or firewall that performs network address translation or port address translation (NAT/PAT). This configuration applies therefore to a wide range of terminals with connectivity options that include dial-up, GPRS, or the Inmarsat Regional BGAN (RBGAN) service, to provide global communications coverage in support of operations conducted by NATO Expeditionary Forces.

Planning and evaluation of MCM missions using AUVs: mixing real and simulated data Planning and evaluation of MCM missions using AUVs: mixing real and simulated data

Date added: 09/01/2006
Date modified: 06/22/2012
Filesize: Unknown

Planning and evaluation of MCM missions using AUVs: mixing real and simulated data. NURC-FR-2006-017. September 2006.

This study was initiated by the NATO Undersea Research Centre in collaboration with SeeByte Ltd and Heriot-Watt University located in Edinburgh, Scotland. As AUVs equipped with sidescan sonars become more mature as an operational MCM tool, the ability to evaluate their capabilities and predict their performance becomes increasingly important. To date, tools developed for MCM assets have not successfully transposed to AUVs. There is therefore a gap between the predicted and observed operational performance of minehunting AUVs. This will become a critical issue as AUVs continue to be adopted as operational tools deployed by NATO nations. A 'system' based evaluation methodology has been proposed where a full system (vehicle + sonar + Automatic Target Recognition (ATR))is evaluated in various environments using real data. Existing AUV mounted sidescan sonars have very specific characteristics which are highly dependent on the environment, especially in shallow waters, and are therefore difficult to model. Initial results obtained on various REMUS missions have demonstrated the potential of the tool to assess AUV missions.

Sonobuoy Placement for Optimal Multistatic Detection and Localization Sonobuoy Placement for Optimal Multistatic Detection and Localization

Date added: 10/01/2006
Date modified: 06/22/2012
Filesize: Unknown

Sonobuoy Placement for Optimal Multistatic Detection and Localization. NURC-FR-2006-020. October 2006.

This report studies optimal multistatic sensor placement strategies.  Our sensor placement approach specifically reflects operational objectives, through the choice of the target trajectory set.  In particular, the results illustrated in this report focus on the barrier (or port area protection) scenario.  We focus on two multistatic surveillance networks of interest; the first (one source and three receivers) is motivated by the experimental multistatic system available at NURC (the DEMUS system), while the second (two source and two receivers) provides comparison with a network with the same number of sonobuoys.  We study optimal placements in the FM-only case, the CW-only case, and the combined FM-CW case.  Optimal placements are consistent with our intuition, thus validating our placement methodology and its use as a placement aid in more complex scenarios where intuition is challenged.  The report leverages previous localization analysis and signal excess modelling conducted at NURC, for both FM and CW waveforms.  Our key contributions here include the development of an information-based optimization metric, its evaluation over target-trajectory sets rather than over conventional grid-point sets, and a careful accounting for multistatic issues including direct blast blanking.  In future work, we plan to compare actual tracking performance based on optimal sensor placements with performance based on sub-optimal placements.

The ADCP as a proxy for suspended sediment concentration: calibration and comparison against optical data during an extended test in the Marine Protected Area of Portofino The ADCP as a proxy for suspended sediment concentration: calibration and comparison against optical data during an extended test in the Marine Protected Area of Portofino

Date added: 10/01/2006
Date modified: 08/13/2012
Filesize: Unknown

The ADCP as a proxy for suspended sediment concentration: calibration and comparison against optical data during an extended test in the Marine Protected Area of Portofino. Bassetti, M. ; Grandi, V. ; Carta, A. ; Rixen, M. ; de Strobel, F. ; Gualdesi, L. ; Fioravanti, S. NURC-FR-2006-013. October 2006.

Transmissometer and backscatter devices are widely used to measure sediment concentration, but they provide only sparse temporal coverage and are therefore of limited use over longer periods. Acoustic backscatter measurement using an ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) is a non-intrusive technique for monitoring suspended sediment particles covering the whole water column. This technique offers the opportunity to remotely measure suspended loads with a temporal and spatial resolution that cannot be achieved by optical methods. The concept of using backscattered acoustic energy as a measure of the concentration of suspended matter has long been recognized, but only recently can this be done with any degree of reliability. A commercial software tool specifically designed for this task has been used to find a relationship between acoustic data and sediment information. This process is regarded as calibration and is generally carried out using either concentration values from water samples or turbidity data collected by optical sensors. The SEPTR (Shallow water Environmental Profiler in Trawl-safe Real-time), a platform with profiling and communication capabilities developed at NURC (NATO Undersea Research Centre), is the ideal workbench for the calibration of acoustic measurements since it contains ADCP and optical sensors that simultaneously measure the same water column. In July 2005 one unit was deployed in the Marine Protected Area of Portofino (Italy) where storm resuspension has been observed. This extended deployment provided data on backscattering, turbidity, fluorescence, temperature, salinity, solid concentration and chlorophyll from which ADCP calibration coefficients were used to infer suspended sediment material.

Performance of a distributed multistatic surveillance network during the DEMUS’04 sea trial Performance of a distributed multistatic surveillance network during the DEMUS’04 sea trial

Date added: 11/01/2006
Date modified: 06/22/2012
Filesize: Unknown

Performance of a distributed multistatic surveillance network during the DEMUS’04 sea trial NURC-FR-2006-015. November 2006.

The NATO Undersea Research Center has been evaluating the multistatic sonar concept for the past several years. In the late 1990s, the Centre tested and evaluated the Deployable Undersea Surveillance System (DUSS), which was based on Barra buoy receiver arrays. The potential for such a multistatic concept was demonstrated and the procurement of a more capable deployable multistatic system (DEMUS) was initiated. In 2004, the first scientific data collection using the new Deployable Experimental Multistatic Undersea Surveillance (DEMUS) System was accomplished. This reportdescribes the DEMUS system and summarizes its performance during the DEMUS’04 sea trial. The collected data show the detection diversity obtained on several sensors. Detection analysis and initial tracking results are shown. The potential for such a fixed distributed system to utilize Doppler-sensitive waveforms is also demonstrated.

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