Report of results of completed projects or major milestones either in scientific terms or in terms acceptable to a wider audience. Note: Unless linked to the full text, reports are only available to NATO member nations from designated distribution centres.
A risk game formalization in support to maritime situation awareness automation: analysis of reasoning profiles
A risk game formalization in support to maritime situation awareness automation: analysis of reasoning profiles. Jousselme, Anne-Laure; Ben Abdallah, Nadia; Pichon, Fréderic. CMRE-FR-2016-011. December 2016.
This document follows on previous work on the Risk Game, a general methodology developed at CMRE to elicit experts knowledge and know-how, and their ability to deal with information of different nature, to consider the information quality and to reason about concurrent events. It is a contrived technique aimed at capturing data expressing human reasoning features while performing a specific task of maritime situation assessment. This report is mainly dedicated to the mathematical formalisation of the risk game and the underlying maritime situation assessment problem. We propose an overarching framework for maritime situation assessment which clearly distinguishes between the elements of (1) context, (2) source quality and (3) situation, and considers their influence links. The model has three layers: variable layer, valuation layer and information quality layer. We adopt the algebraic framework of Valuation Algebras allowing a great flexibility in uncertainty representation and reasoning. In order to cover a wide range of uncertainty representations, and further study the impact of modelisation choices, we frame the problem into the belief function theory as it naturally extends both classical sets (hence classical logic) and probability theory. Furthermore, we use a graphical model which, besides efficient computation, allows a clear exposition of the problem and solution for a hopefully better understanding for the user. The analysis performed illustrates comparative reasoning schemes between players and automated reasoners. By testing a few different schemes, we have been able to identify players whose reasoning was consistent with evidential reasoning, or who answered to a threat assessment problem rather than an identification problem. We have also been able to highlight the impact of context and source quality. Rather than suggesting a normative way of reasoning, this study aims at characterising personal reasoning attitudes of experts. Knowing in advance the consequences of a particular reasoning scheme could help prevent some reasoning biases.
Building NATO hybrid, cognitive and secure underwater networks. Alves, João; Berni, Alessandro; Furfaro, Thomas C.; Merani, Diego; Munafò, Andrea; Pelekanalis, Konstantinos; Petroccia, Roberto; Zappa, Giovanni. CMRE-FR-2016-006. December 2016.
This document presents the work currently under development at Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) towards the implementation of a hybrid, cognitive and secure underwater networking capability. It sums up the different technical and scientific strands of work into a coherent and unifying capability that can enable advanced autonomous underwater solutions by delivering smart, adaptive and secure underwater networking. The authors motivate the need for building a backbone architecture from the ground up, putting the requirements in perspective with the state-of-the-art. The design of the architecture is then presented in detail. The adaptive solutions and protocols developed are also reported along with the results obtained so far from experimentation at sea. The security aspects of underwater communications and how those come into play within the proposed solution are also addressed. The implementation of known security techniques is discussed and prospect approaches are presented. The path towards underwater networking interoperability is also addressed, specifically by presenting recent work that promotes the usage of JANUS to deliver novel maritime capabilities. Another interoperability aspect reported is the connectivity of underwater networks into NATO C2 systems.
Demonstrating a real-time ASW prediction service at CWIX. Strode, Christopher; Oddone, Manlio. CMRE-FR-2016-009. December 2016.
This document describes the existing real time acoustic prediction architecture afforded by recent developments made to the CMRE Multi Static Tactical Planning Aid (MSTPA) software. A description of the current architecture that has been successfully demonstrated at CWIX 2015 and 2016 is given. Further details are then provided for proposed methods by which the software may be transitioned to a web service architecture for operators and planners allowing for increased interaction. Specifically the need for the operator to configure sensor parameters is described.
Investigating the use of AUVs in ASW operations. Strode, Christopher. CMRE-FR-2016-008. December 2016.
This study explores the potential for AUVs to be deployed within NATO ASW operations and augment the sonar coverage of existing surface platforms. We explore the potential for such vehicles to be fully integrated within the command structure allowing for contact sharing with surface platforms. We further explore the potential for active bistatic and purely passive performance through acoustic modelling and simulation. Persistent deployment is also considered through simulation accounting for battery drain and at-sea recharging. The study concludes that a small number of AUVs towing short linear arrays can indeed provide sufficient sonar performance to conduct persistent area search missions.
Collaborative autonomy for mine countermeasures. Dugelay, Samantha; Connors, Warren; Furfaro, Thomas C.; Baralli, Francesco. CMRE-FR-2016-007. December 2016.
This report presents the research undertaken at the Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) in the field of autonomy and robotics for mine countermeasures. The introduction explains the rationale of the research methods bringing together multiple heterogeneous vehicles for collaborative autonomy. Two main vehicles are employed at CMRE, the first being the Mine-hunting UUV for Shallow-water Covert Littoral Expeditions (MUSCLE), the second being a REMUS 100. Advanced autonomy concepts on-board the MUSCLE for wide-search area survey, detection and classification are presented from some of the basic adaptive behaviours to the future free-thinking vehicle exploration. The REMUS vehicle is employed as a target reacquisition platform and some initial results are given in chapter 3. Finally, the culmination of the research is presented in chapter 4 where a decoupled collaborative autonomy framework is described and supported by experimental results.