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Formal Reports

Report of results of completed projects or major milestones either in scientific terms or in terms acceptable to a wider audience. Note: Unless linked to the full text, reports are only available to NATO member nations from designated distribution centres. 

Documents

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On distributed, network-based, long-base line navigation On distributed, network-based, long-base line navigation

Date added: 10/27/2015
Date modified: 10/27/2015
Filesize: Unknown

On distributed, network-based, long-base line navigation. Munafò, Andrea. CMRE-FR-2015-012. September 2015.

This work describes a system for underwater acoustic navigation based on the addition of localisation services to networked acoustic communication. The approach is based on the inclusion of timing information within acoustic messages through which it is possible to know the time of an acoustic transmission in relation to its reception. The exploitation of such information at the network application level makes it possible to create an interrogation scheme similar to that of a long-baseline. The advantage is that the AUVs themselves become the transponders of a network baseline, and hence there is no need for dedicated instrumentation. Vehicle localisation becomes a service of the acoustic network, reducing the AUV need for additional onboard sensors. Navigation results are given from the COLLAB?NGAS14 and the DMON15 experimental campaigns where the navigation of two Autonomous Underwater Vehicles was supported by an acoustic network composed of up to six nodes. Results are reported as obtained in the field, with varying number of nodes and navigation systems on-board the vehicles.

Extended target tracking applied to X-band marine radar data Extended target tracking applied to X-band marine radar data

Date added: 10/27/2015
Date modified: 10/27/2015
Filesize: Unknown

Extended target tracking applied to X-band marine radar data. Vivone, Gemine; Braca, Paolo; Errasti-Alcalá, Borja. CMRE-FR-2015-013. September 2015.

X-band marine radar systems are flexible and low-cost tools for monitoring multiple targets in a surveillance area. Although they may suffer from several sources of interference, e.g. sea clutter, they can provide high resolution measurements in both space and time. Such features offer the opportunity to get accurate in-formation not only about the target kinematics, i.e. positions and velocities, as other conventional radars, but also about the targets? extents. This research area is named extended target tracking (ETT). In this paper, we propose a signal processing chain composed of a detector and a joint probabilistic data association (JPDA) tracker to handle the problem of multiple ETT and to jointly estimate both the targets? kinematics and their sizes, i.e. length and width. The performance assessment is conducted on real data acquired by an X-band marine radar located in the Gulf of La Spezia, Italy. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of the processing chain to reach high performance with limited computational burden.

CMRE Report on "Participation of EKOE capabilities in the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXploration, eXperimentation, eXamination, eXercise (CWIX) 2015" CMRE Report on "Participation of EKOE capabilities in the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXploration, eXperimentation, eXamination, eXercise (CWIX) 2015"

Date added: 10/27/2015
Date modified: 10/27/2015
Filesize: Unknown

CMRE Report on "Participation of EKOE capabilities in the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXploration, eXperimentation, eXamination, eXercise (CWIX) 2015". Vicen-Bueno, Raul ; Bourque, François-Alex. CMRE-FR-2015-014. September 2015.

This CMRE report presents the way three capabilities of the EKOE (Environmental Knowledge and Operational Effectiveness) programme at CMRE have evolved from a NATO Unclassified (NU) environment to a NATO Secret (NS) environment. These three EKOE capabilities include inputs from the three current projects within the EKOE programme (Battlespace characterization, Understanding the underwater battlespace and Decisions in uncertain ocean environments). The normal way of providing scientific and research outputs from the EKOE programme is done through the participation/organization of sea-trials at NU level. The evolution of the three capabilities is due to the need of providing these scientific and research outputs at NS level so that these outputs can be available for NATO and nations in future exercises and/or operations. This evolution has been facilitated through the participation of the EKOE programme in the NATO exercise CWIX 2015 (Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXploration, eXperimentation, eXamination, eXercise). This participation has been done in collaboration with the CASW (Collaborative AntiSubmarine Warfare) and MSEC (Maritime Security) programmes at CMRE, where these programmes also deployed three other capabilities. The three capabilities participating from the EKOE programme were: OC data (oceanographic data and forecast), EnvAs (environmental and risk assessment) and Asset Planning. These capabilities have been developed considering highly interoperable standards, already adapted by NATO or in process of being accepted as standards. High success rates in terms of successful executed test cases with other NATO and national capabilities were achieved. Some improvements were identified in the three EKOE capabilities. This will make them much more robust and mature in terms of interoperability. The identified improvements have to be implemented in next steps/increments before participating in future NATO and national exercises. Finally, it is a highlight that interaction with more than 40 different capabilities from different focus areas (GeoMETOC, Maritime, Modeling and Simulation and Joint Vignette) and from 10 different nations and 3 NATO bodies/centres were achieved for the three EKOE capabilities. This high interaction denotes the high interest of the NATO nations and bodies/centres in CMRE/EKOE scientific and research outputs.

A survey of multi-agent strategies for ASW applications A survey of multi-agent strategies for ASW applications

Date added: 10/21/2015
Date modified: 10/27/2015
Filesize: Unknown

A survey of multi-agent strategies for ASW applications. Ferri, Gabriele. CMRE-FR-2015-011. September 2015.

The CMRE multi-static ASW network is composed of fixed nodes and mobile robots working together to achieve common objectives (this kind of network is named in the literature as hybrid). In the ASW littoral scenario the CMRE ASW network offers the promise to provide effective ASW capabilities at a fraction of the cost of traditional assets. To realize an effective network we need to endow every node with autonomy and with the capability to collaborate with one another. Autonomy is crucial for the agents to make effective decisions when communication with other network members and with the command and control centre is limited or impossible. Collaboration between nodes can increase the network robustness and the effectiveness in accomplishing ASW tasks. In this report we start from an analysis of how an effective collaboration between nodes and autonomy can benefit the CMRE ASW network in a littoral surveillance scenario. We then present a thorough review of multi-robot cooperation topics with a special focus on task allocation. Task allocation is the process of allocating tasks to the most suited robots to increase the group's benefit. These studies suggest that a market-based approach can be a viable solution for task allocation. These methods are flexible and provide a good compromise between required communication bandwidth and quality of the task allocation. Guiding principles are presented to design a market-based task allocation scheme tailored to the ASW scenario. In particular, the tasks constituting a complex ASW mission are presented along with a suited utility function. An example of an auction is also presented and discussed. The approach presented can be used as a template to develop auctions also for other tasks of interest.

A risk game to measure the impact of information quality on human threat assessment and decision making A risk game to measure the impact of information quality on human threat assessment and decision making

Date added: 10/07/2015
Date modified: 10/07/2015
Filesize: Unknown

A risk game to measure the impact of information quality on human threat assessment and decision making.  Jousselme, Anne-Laure; Pallotta, Giuliana; Locke, Jonathan. CMRE-FR-2015-009. June 2015.

This document describes the Risk Game, a general methodology developed at CMRE to elicit experts knowledge and know-how, including their ability to deal with information of different nature (from sensors to human witnesses), to consider the information quality (including source quality) and to reason about concurrent events. It is a "contrived" technique aimed at capturing data expressing human reasoning features while performing a specific task of maritime situation assessment. The main focus of the Risk Game is the study of the impact of information quality on the ability of human operators to assess threat and make decisions. A new methodology is presented where information is abstracted away by cards, and the quality is randomly selected by dice roll. The game has been tested during the Table Top Exercise (TTX) for harbour protection held at CMRE in November 2014. The game has been played by 32 experts, most of them OF-3 and above of the maritime domain, from 9 NATO Nations. The preliminary results obtained are promising and allowed us to identify research challenges as a basis for definition of future work. We in particular validated the elicitation method and highlighted for instance that the players? perceived relevance of information may differ from the effective relevance, that a high amount of false information increases the uncertainty of the player before decision and may lead to wrong decisions, or that the context has a high impact on the decision taken. We also draw some research avenues to be addressed in future work, such as the definitions of information quality measures which would be consistent across different domains of definition (resolution and type of scale).

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