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Memorandum Reports

Report that covers interim results during the course of a project. Note: Unless linked to the full text, reports are only available to NATO member nations from designated distribution centres.

Documents

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Evolution of the LOON to enable classified research and experimentation of communications and networks in the maritime domain Evolution of the LOON to enable classified research and experimentation of communications and networks in the maritime domain

Date added: 12/12/2016
Date modified: 12/12/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Evolution of the LOON to enable classified research and experimentation of communications and networks in the maritime domain. Berni, Alessandro; Merani, Diego; Alves, João. CMRE-MR-2016-007.  November 2016.

The LOON testbed has been a crucial asset in support of the developments of CMRE's Communications and Networks in the maritime environment project. With the extension of the project's scope of work to include security aspects of underwater networking, the requirement to conduct classified work with the LOON emerges. This document provides a quick overview of the LOON, and contextualizes the security principles and requirements to follow. It concludes with an implementation roadmap to enable classified work on the LOON.

Discussion of suggestions, recommendations and conclusions reported by the NIAG SG190 Discussion of suggestions, recommendations and conclusions reported by the NIAG SG190

Date added: 12/12/2016
Date modified: 12/12/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Discussion of suggestions, recommendations and conclusions reported by the NIAG SG190. Alves, João; Petroccia, Roberto; Munafó, Andrea; Furfaro, Thomas C. CMRE-MR-2016-006.  November 2016.

The NIAG SG190 was created in-2014 to review the technical specification of the JANUS standard, to explore and suggest technical enhancements and to advise on what is practical, economical, reasonable and cost effective in designing, building and integrating JANUS-compliant communication systems. The NIAG SG190 produced a comprehensive report that includes findings, recommendations and suggestions on how to extend JANUS in future revisions. The present document offers CMRE's view on the NIAG SG190 final report, joining the group's suggestions with CMRE's accumulated expertise in the JANUS specification and operation at sea.

C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems [Ed. 2] C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems [Ed. 2]

Date added: 12/12/2016
Date modified: 12/12/2016
Filesize: Unknown

C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems. Berni, Alessandro ; Cignoni, Alessandro ; Merani, Diego ; Alves, Joao ; Vicen Bueno, Raul. CMRE-MR-2016-012/Ed. 2.  November 2016.

This report is ultimately about establishing links between underwater networks and C2 systems and about providing an underwater situational picture to NATO and nations' C2 systems during joint experimentations. The approach is to take a holistic view, taking in consideration the global picture, the current state of development of Underwater Communications and the Maritime Domain Operational Scenario. A key element to be considered is the fact that the challenges to be faced are not limited to the physics of communications. We need instead to consider the more complex challenges of interconnecting heterogeneous unmanned vehicles, very different in terms of attributes (from low cost expendable robots to very expensive autonomous systems), operating in different technical domains (Air, Surface, Sub-Surface) but all contributing to the operational scenario to be conducted in the Maritime Operational Domain. The fundamental building blocks required to deliver interoperable C2 for maritime unmanned systems are presented, using interoperability levels from NATO's Architecture Framework (NAF) and discussing some possible information exchange approaches. Focusing the attention on approaches capable of delivering the integration of unmanned maritime systems in the Recognized Maritime Picture and in Water Space Management services, the report documents progress realized over the past few years, through spiral development, demonstrations and experimentations. Building on the experience made during CWIX14 (interoperability as data provider and publishing of tracks to NATO and national C2 using "Fusion-as-a-Service") it was possible to demonstrate during CWIX16 a complete Glider Command and Control system (GliderC2S) for unmanned assets operating autonomously over 2,000 Km away, generating standard-based information products of relevant for different communities of interest. During sea trial REP16-ATLANTIC, instead, a first demonstration was made to enable Blue force tracking for underwater assets. Progress is also reported on the plans to augment the military communications capabilities of NRV Alliance, to improve the integration of the vessel, and of the unmanned maritime systems it supports, during future Military Exercises.

C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems

Date added: 11/09/2016
Date modified: 11/09/2016
Filesize: Unknown

C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems. Berni, Alessandro ; Cignoni, Alessandro ; Merani, Diego ; Alves, Joao ; Vicen Bueno, Raul. CMRE-MR-2016-012. October 2016.

This report is ultimately about establishing links between underwater networks and C2 systems and about providing an underwater situational picture to NATO and nations' C2 systems during joint experimentations. The approach is to take a holistic view, taking in consideration the global picture, the current state of development of Underwater Communications and the Maritime Domain Operational Scenario. A key element to be considered is the fact that the challenges to be faced are not limited to the physics of communications. We need instead to consider the more complex challenges of interconnecting heterogeneous unmanned vehicles, very different in terms of attributes (from low cost expendable robots to very expensive autonomous systems), operating in different technical domains (Air, Surface, Sub-Surface) but all contributing to the operational scenario to be conducted in the Maritime Operational Domain. The fundamental building blocks required to deliver interoperable C2 for maritime unmanned systems are presented, using interoperability levels from NATO's Architecture Framework (NAF) and discussing some possible information exchange approaches. Focusing the attention on approaches capable of delivering the integration of unmanned maritime systems in the Recognized Maritime Picture and in Water Space Management services, the report documents progress realized over the past few years, through spiral development, demonstrations and experimentations. Building on the experience made during CWIX14 (interoperability as data provider and publishing of tracks to NATO and national C2 using "Fusion-as-a-Service") it was possible to demonstrate during CWIX16 a complete Glider Command and Control system (GliderC2S) for unmanned assets operating autonomously over 2,000 Km away, generating standard-based information products of relevant for different communities of interest. During sea trial REP16-ATLANTIC, instead, a first demonstration was made to enable Blue force tracking for underwater assets. Progress is also reported on the plans to augment the military communications capabilities of NRV Alliance, to improve the integration of the vessel, and of the unmanned maritime systems it supports, during future Military Exercises.

Environmental variability in potential/future threat scenarios: the case of the Arctic Environmental variability in potential/future threat scenarios: the case of the Arctic

Date added: 11/09/2016
Date modified: 11/09/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Environmental variability in potential/future threat scenarios: the case of the Arctic. Russo, Aniello ; Borrione, InesOddo, Paolo. CMRE-MR-2016-015. October 2016.

The Arctic has been identified as one of the priority areas in the NATO Readiness Action Plan approved at the Wales Summit in 2014. During the past five decades, the Arctic region showed the largest METOC changes in the world, and climatic simulations indicate that this could continue during next decades. This report concerns the environmental variability of the Arctic region. The recent availability of instruments anchored in the sea ice and ability to profile the upper and intermediate layers of the Arctic waters made it possible to detect hundreds of mesoscale eddies in the Arctic halocline of the Canadian and Eurasian Basins, and their increasing number in 2013-2014 could be also related to the summer sea ice retreat. An even larger number of mesoscale eddies has been recently revealed by means of remote sensing in the Lofoten Basin, which is annually ice free. In both cases eddies are large enough to be detected, being in areas characterized by relatively large Rossby radii; but wide areas of the Arctic region have smaller Rossby radii and eddies currently can not be detected. The specific analysis conducted in an important area of the Arctic region, the Nordic (or GIN) Seas, revealed some aspects of its environmental variability and huge changes in temperature, salinity and sound speed profiles, that appear to differ with the regions considered. The Greenland Basin is shown to be characterized by a relevant positive trend of temperature and salinity and a reducing sound speed channel. In other areas, such as the eastern Lofoten Basin and in the Faroe-Shetland Channel, there is evidence of a high spatial and temporal variability, where intense mesoscale dynamics play a relevant role in the former area and internal waves in the latter one. The first part of the report summarizes the knowledge status of the environmental variability of the Arctic region, providing a picture of the ongoing climate change (decadal time scales) and of the mesoscale variability. The second part focuses on a key region, the Nordic Seas (traditional name for the Greenland Sea, Iceland Sea and Norwegian Sea, also indicated as GIN Seas). The southern part of this area was already investigated by CMRE from 1986 to 1993. During the last three decades relevant changes interested this region. Strong increasing trends of temperature and salinity are evident, above all during the last decade, and large variations in sound speed profiles are evident, apparently with different causes for variability depending on the areas considered. The very low values of Rossby radii in large areas of the Arctic region poses the need for higher resolution data, developing both new observing platforms and new coupled sea ice-ocean-acoustic models, in order to resolve the mesoscale variability and to adequately characterize the marine battlespace.

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