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Memorandum Reports

Report that covers interim results during the course of a project. Note: Unless linked to the full text, reports are only available to NATO member nations from designated distribution centres.

Documents

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NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXploration, eXperimentation, eXamination, eXercise (CWIX) 2015 exercise plan NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXploration, eXperimentation, eXamination, eXercise (CWIX) 2015 exercise plan

Date added: 02/17/2016
Date modified: 02/17/2016
Filesize: Unknown

NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXploration, eXperimentation, eXamination, eXercise (CWIX) 2015 exercise plan. Vicen Bueno, Raul; Strode, Christopher; Oddone, Manlio; Bourque, François-Alex; Berni, Alessandro; Cignoni, Alessandro; Merani, Diego; Cimino, Giampaolo; Soto, Jose; Fiala, Michal; Millefiori, Leonardo; Arcieri, Gianfranco; Cecchi, Daniele; Grasso, Raffaele. CMRE-MR-2016-001. February 2016.

This document contains a description of the exercise plan prepared by the CMRE authors to participate in the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXploration, eXperimentation, eXamination, eXercise (CWIX) 2015. Three different programmes of CMRE participates in CWIX 2015: EKOE - Environmental Knowledge and Operational Effectiveness, MSEC - Maritime Security, and CASW - Collaborative AntiSubmarine Warfare. CMRE prepared the participation in the major NATO interoperability exercise CWIX 2015 based on the resources allocated in the following ACT-funded projects: SAC000509 EKOE/DUOE (Decisions in Uncertain Ocean Environments), SAC000508 EKOE/UUB (Understanding the Underwater Battlespace), SAC000510 MSEC/DKOE (Data Knowledge and Operational Effectiveness), and SAC000503 CASW/DS (Decision Support). CMRE brings six capabilities to the NATO Exercise CWIX 2015, demonstrating a large variety of scientific products that could turn into operational: EKOE/DUOE - 2015-NATO - AssetPlanning -, EKOE/DUOE -2015-NATO - EnvAs - (Environmental Assessment), EKOE/UUB -2015-NATO - OCdata- (Oceanographic Data and Forecast), CASW/DS ?2015-NATO - MSTPA - (Multistatic Tactical Planning Aid), MSEC/DKOE -2015-NATO - TREAD- (Traffic Route Extraction and Anomaly Detection), and MSEC/DKOE -2015-NATO - FaaS- (Fusion as a Service). This exercise plan first provides the internal submission and approval process. Second, it gives a background of the CWIX exercise to the readers, as well as the objectives and challenges set for this exercise participation. Third, it provides an overview on the way to operate in CWIX, focusing on physical locations and partners. Fourth, it describes the preparation of the experiment, focusing on the plan of the tasks and the risk assessment. Fifth, it provides a comprehensive list of equipment requirements for each capability so that it can be executed at the required security level. Sixth, it describes the team required to participate and the roles and responsibilities of each member of the team. Seventh, the contact information of the exercise lead and capability leads is reported for future contact and further information requests. Finally, a comprehensive description of each capability is provided in annexes.

Civilian Monitoring Network (CMN) high level report Civilian Monitoring Network (CMN) high level report

Date added: 02/05/2016
Date modified: 02/05/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Civilian Monitoring Network (CMN) high level report. Collins, Michael. CMRE-MR-2015-018. January 2016.

The advent of low cost hydrophones and the electronics necessary to record, process, and disseminate recordings has led to an increase in the amount of recording equipment deployed in the ocean for nonmilitary purposes. Installations of recording equipment used by civilians are referred to as ?Civilian Monitoring Networks? (CMNs). A CMN may inadvertently record the acoustic signature of NATO submarines, thus compromising their security. To quantify this risk, a computer pro-gram called the Passive Acoustic Modelling Tool (PAMT) is developed to estimate CMN detection range. PAMT uses the Artemis sonar performance model to estimate transmission loss in the vicinity of CMN sensors. Artemis accounts for the effects of bathymetry, sound speed profile, surface and bottom scattering, and bottom conditions. PAMT combines the transmission loss calculation with knowledge of CMN sensor characteristics and ambient noise measurements. The CMN sensor characteristics modelled by PAMT are self-noise and array geometry. PAMT is used to generate maps showing the detection zones for a CMN sensor at a given radiated noise level. The effect of CMN array geometry, frequency, submarine depth, sound speed profile, and ambient noise level is studied.

Taxonomy of civilian monitoring networks Taxonomy of civilian monitoring networks

Date added: 02/05/2016
Date modified: 02/05/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Taxonomy of civilian monitoring networks. Collins, Michael. CMRE-MR-2015-019. January 2016.

The advent of low cost hydrophones and the electronics necessary to record, pro-cess, and disseminate recordings has led to an increase in the amount of recording equipment deployed in the ocean for nonmilitary purposes. Installations of recording equipment used by civilians are referred to as ?Civilian Monitoring Networks? (CMNs). A CMN may inadvertently record the acoustic signature of NATO submarines, thus compromising their security. To assess the threat, a taxonomy is created. It categorizes CMNs by their sensor characteristics, data handling methods, and purpose. The taxonomy of sensor characteristics is designed to allow quick estimation of CMN detection range when combined with an appropriate modelling tool.

The effectiveness of autonomous networks utilizing passive and active ASW The effectiveness of autonomous networks utilizing passive and active ASW

Date added: 02/05/2016
Date modified: 02/05/2016
Filesize: Unknown

The effectiveness of autonomous networks utilizing passive and active ASW. LePage, Kevin D.; Strode, Christopher; Tesei, Alessandra. CMRE-MR-2015-020. January 2016.

The effectiveness of active and passive ASW networks is evaluated as a function of operating frequency, array aperture, sensor speed and environmental conditions for the littoral area search mission. Results show that powerful active ASW suites deployed from only a few large displacement unmanned vehicles (UxV) compete with moderate numbers of monostatic sensing solutions using low-power, high-frequency sonars mounted on smaller UxV. Bistatic active sensor networks that do not require a source to be deployed on each UxV are shown to offer a compelling alternative to monostatic active sensing solutions. Passive sensing solutions are shown to require large numbers within the network to perform at the same level of effectiveness as the active ASW sensor networks.

Capability of the direction of arrival estimation using a 3D acoustic compact array Capability of the direction of arrival estimation using a 3D acoustic compact array

Date added: 02/01/2016
Date modified: 02/01/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Capability of the direction of arrival estimation using a 3D acoustic compact array. Jiang, Yong Min. CMRE-MR-2015-021. December 2015.

The capability of estimating the DOA of underwater source is one of the competencies for an underwater ISR system. A prototype 3DCA was developed underwater glider at CMRE for exploring the capability of estimating the elevation and azimuthal angles of underwater acoustic sources. The 3DCA comprised of eight hydrophones - 3 pairs of hydrophones lie on 3 orthogonal axes, one in the origin, and the other one on the vertical axis. The inter-element separation was 16.5 cm. This layout allows us to obtain up to the second orders of pressure gradient along the two horizontal axes, and up to the third order of pressure gradient in the vertical direction. The spatial resolutions of using the combination of pressure and different orders of pressure gradient were simulated. A relative phase difference based DOA estimation algorithm was deducted for the 3DCA. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated using the data collected during the REP14-MED (Recognized Environmental Picture 2014 - Mediterranean) sea trial, which was conducted to the west of Sardinia in June 2014. The algorithm was applied to the data collected at two acoustic stations with nominal distances of 0.5 and 1.0 km, and at two source depths, i.e. 25 and 60 m, at each station. The algorithm was performed on eight CW (continuous wave) tonals for each source ? receiver combination. The frequency of the signal ranged from 331 Hz to 1433 Hz. It is shown in the preliminary results that consistent estimates of the elevation angle with acceptable standard deviations were obtained. However, a systematic bias in bearing angles was found in the results for every source ? receiver combination and across all the frequencies. Is appears that the 3DCA array structure and the corresponding phase difference DOA estimation algorithm are feasible for being implemented in gliders.

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